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FNV Hash 

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FNV quick index
 An external FNV Wikipedia page exists
 History and use of the FNV hash
 FNV has been put into the public domain via the
Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication license.
 The FNV1 hash in a nutshell
 The FNV1a hash minor variation
 FNV1/FNV1a hash parameters
 A few remarks on FNV primes
 Changing the FNV hash size with xorfolding
 FNV hash with a nonpower of 2 size
 FNV reference code
 Other FNV source code you might wish to consider
 A slight gcc optimization
 Can you help solve some of the zero hash challenges?
The basis of the FNV hash algorithm was taken from an idea sent as reviewer comments to the IEEE POSIX P1003.2 committee by Glenn Fowler and Phong Vo back in 1991. In a subsequent ballot round: Landon Curt Noll improved on their algorithm. Some people tried this hash and found that it worked rather well. In an Email message to Landon, they named it the ``Fowler/Noll/Vo'' or FNV hash.
FNV hashes are designed to be fast while maintaining a low collision rate. The FNV speed allows one to quickly hash lots of data while maintaining a reasonable collision rate. The high dispersion of the FNV hashes makes them well suited for hashing nearly identical strings such as URLs, hostnames, filenames, text, IP addresses, etc.
The IETF has an informational draft on The FNV NonCryptographic Hash Algorithm
The FNV hash is in wide spread use:
FNV hash algorithms and source code been been put into the public domain via the following Creative Commons license:
CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain DedicationNo Copyright  CC0  No Rights Reserved
The CC0 license means that the hash algorithms and source code has been dedicated to the public domain by waiving all of our rights to the work worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.
See the Creative Commons CC0 page for more details.
The authors of the FNV algorithm took deliberate steps to disclose the algorithm in a public forum soon after it was invented. More than a year passed after this public disclosure and the authors deliberately took no steps to patent the FNV algorithm. Therefore it is safe to say that the FNV authors have no patent claims on the FNV algorithm as published.
If you use an FNV function in an application, why not tell us about it by sending Email to:
Please include the phrase FNV hash function somewhere is the subject line of your Email.
There is no requirement to tell us you are using FNV, however if you do, we will be happy to add your application to the above list.
The core of the FNV1 hash algorithm is as follows:
hash = offset_basis for each octet_of_data to be hashed hash = hash * FNV_prime hash = hash xor octet_of_data return hashThe offset_basis and FNV_prime can be found in the parameters of the FNV1/FNV1a hash section below.
NOTE: We recommend that you use the FNV1a alternative algorithm instead of the FNV1 hash where possible.
There is a minor variation of the FNV hash algorithm known as FNV1a:
hash = offset_basis for each octet_of_data to be hashed hash = hash xor octet_of_data hash = hash * FNV_prime return hashThe only difference between the FNV1a hash and the FNV1 hash is the order of the xor and multiply. The FNV1a hash uses the same FNV_prime and offset_basis as the FNV1 hash of the same nbit size.
The offset_basis and FNV_prime can be found in the parameters of the FNV1/FNV1a hash section below.
Some people use FNV1a instead of FNV1 because they see slightly better dispersion for tiny (<4 octets) chunks of memory.
One person reported that the FNV1 hash was not as good as the FNV1a hash, for their purposes, because the final octet is not as well dispersed. They reported that the FNV1a hash was better for error detection, for example.
Other people report that either FNV1 or FNV1a make a fine hash. (Try it with with just a dash of Sage and ground Cloves :))
NOTE: We recommend that you use the FNV1a alternative algorithm instead of the FNV1 hash where possible.
32 bit FNV_prime = 2^{24} + 2^{8} + 0x93 = 16777619
64 bit FNV_prime = 2^{40} + 2^{8} + 0xb3 = 1099511628211
128 bit FNV_prime = 2^{88} + 2^{8} + 0x3b = 309485009821345068724781371
256 bit FNV_prime = 2^{168} + 2^{8} + 0x63 = 374144419156711147060143317175368453031918731002211
512 bit FNV_prime = 2^{344} + 2^{8} + 0x57 =
35835915874844867368919076489095108449946327955754392558399825615420669938882575
126094039892345713852759
1024 bit FNV_prime = 2^{680} + 2^{8} + 0x8d =
50164565101131186554345988110352789550307653454047907443030175238311120551081474
51509157692220295382716162651878526895249385292291816524375083746691371804094271
873160484737966720260389217684476157468082573
Part of the magic of FNV is the selection of the FNV_prime for a given sized unsigned integer. Some primes do hash better than other primes for a given integer size.
32 bit offset_basis = 2166136261
64 bit offset_basis = 14695981039346656037
128 bit offset_basis = 144066263297769815596495629667062367629
256 bit offset_basis =
100029257958052580907070968620625704837092796014241193945225284501741471925557
512 bit offset_basis =
96593031294966694980094354007163104660904187456726378961083743294344626579945829
32197716438449813051892206539805784495328239340083876191928701583869517785
1024 bit offset_basis =
14197795064947621068722070641403218320880622795441933960878474914617582723252296
73230371772215086409652120235554936562817466910857181476047101507614802975596980
40773201576924585630032153049571501574036444603635505054127112859663616102678680
82893823963790439336411086884584107735010676915
NOTE: Older versions of this web page incorrectly indicated that the 128 bit FNV_prime was 2^{168} + 2^{8} + 0x59. This was not correct. While that satisfied all of the significant FNV_prime properties, it was not the smallest 128 bit FNV_prime. The 128 bit offset_basis changed from 275519064689413815358837431229664493455 to 144066263297769815596495629667062367629 was changed as a result of the 128 bit FNV_prime correction. (Sorry about that!)
These nonzero integers are the FNV0 hashes of the following 32 octets:
chongo <Landon Curt Noll> /\../\
The \'s in the above string are not Cstyle escape characters. In Cstring notation, these 32 octets are:
"chongo <Landon Curt Noll> /\\../\\"
Regarding the offset_basis value:
The switch from FNV0 to FNV1 was purely to change the offset_basis to a nonzero value. The selection of that nonzero value is arbitrary. The string:
was used because the tester was looking at an Email message from Landon in Landon's standard Email signature line. Actually the person who did that did not see very well. Landon, today, uses ()'s instead of <>'s and his ASCII bats use "oo" eyes instead of ".." as in:chongo <Landon Curt Noll> /\../\chongo (Landon Curt Noll) /\oo/\We didn't bother correcting her error because it does not matter. In the general case, almost any offset_basis will serve so long as it is nonzero.
The following calc script was used to compute the offset_basis for FNV1 hashes:
hash_bits = insert_the_hash_size_in_bits_here; FNV_prime = insert_the_FNV_prime_here; offset_basis = 0; offset_str = "chongo <Landon Curt Noll> /\\../\\"; hash_mod = 2^hash_bits; str_len = strlen(offset_str); for (i=1; i <= str_len; ++i) { offset_basis = (offset_basis * FNV_prime) % hash_mod; offset_basis = xor(offset_basis, ord(substr(offset_str,i,1))); } print hash_bits, "bit offset_basis =", offset_basis;NOTE: The above code fragment example is written in the calc language, not in C.
FNV0 Historic note: The FNV0 is the historic FNV algorithm that is now deprecated. It has an offset_basis of 0. Unless the FNV0 hash is required for historical purposes, the FNV1 or FNV1a should be used in place of the FNV0 hash. Use FNV1 and FNV1a hashes, with their nonzero offset_basis instead. The FNV0 hashes all buffers that contain only 0 octets to a hash value of 0. The FNV1 and FNV1a hash do not suffer from this minor problem.
While theory behind FNV_prime's is beyond the scope of this web page, the following text may suffice to satisfy the curious:One of the key properties to look for in an FNV_prime is how it impacts dispersion.
When s is an integer and 4 < s < 11, then FNV_prime is the smallest prime p of the form:
256^{int((5 + 2s)/12)} + 2^{8} + bsuch that:
 0 < b < 2^{8}
 The number of onebits in b is 4 or 5
 p mod 2^{40}  2^{24}  1 > 2^{24} + 2^{8} + 2^{7}
An FNV_prime that matches the above constraints tend to have better dispersion properties. They improve the polynomial feedback characteristic when an FNV_prime multiplies an intermediate hash value. The hash values produced are more scattered throughout the nbit hash space.
It is a nice side effect that FNV_prime may be optimized by some compilers for some hardware. On some hardware, replacing the FNV_prime multiply with a set of shifts and adds will improve performance. In other cases where multiply may be pipelined (such as in vector mode), the set of shifts and adds may be suboptimal. The FNV_prime were not selected for compiler optimization, they were selected for the quality of resulting hash function.
In the case where s = 5, both 16777499 and 16777619 could have been used. The narrowness of the 32bit hash suggested that the larger prime might be better. It turned out that this level of caution was not warranted. When larger FNV hashes were developed, we opted to select the smallest prime. For compatibility with the original IEEE POSIX P1003.2 committee proposal, the historic FNV_prime for the s = 5 case was kept. The requirement that the FNV_prime mod 2^{40}  2^{24}  1 (1099494850559) must be > 2^{24} + 2^{8} + 2^{7} (16777600) was added to harmonize the FNV_primes across 4 < s < 11.
The case where s < 5 is not considered because the resulting hash quality is too low. Such small hashes can, if desired, be derived from a 32 bit FNV hash by xorfolding.
The case where s > 10 is considered because the doubtful utility of such large FNV hashes and because the criteria for such large FNV_Primes is more complex, due to the sparsity of such large primes, and would needlessly clutter the criteria given above. The criteria above is a simplified form that fails to generate 2048bit FNV_prime and a 4096bit FNV_prime, for example. For such large primes we would need to use a more extensive prime selection criteria.
If you need an xbit hash where x is not a power of 2, then we recommend that you compute the FNV hash that is just larger than xbits and xorfold the result down to xbits. By xorfolding we mean shift the excess high order bits down and xor them with the lower xbits.For example to produce a 24 bit FNV1 hash in C we xorfold fold a 32 bit FNV1 hash:
#define MASK_24 (((u_int32_t)1<<24)1) /* i.e., (u_int32_t)0xffffff */ #define FNV1_32_INIT ((u_int32_t)2166136261) u_int32_t hash; void *data; size_t data_len; hash = fnv_32_buf(data, data_len, FNV1_32_INIT); hash = (hash>>24) ^ (hash & MASK_24);To produce a 16 bit FNV1 hash in C we xorfold fold a 32 bit FNV1 hash:
#define MASK_16 (((u_int32_t)1<<16)1) /* i.e., (u_int32_t)0xffff */ #define FNV1_32_INIT ((u_int32_t)2166136261) u_int32_t hash; void *data; size_t data_len; hash = fnv_32_buf(data, data_len, FNV1_32_INIT); hash = (hash>>16) ^ (hash & MASK_16);To produce a 56 bit FNV1 hash in C (on a machine with 64 bit unsigned values) we xorfold fold a 64 bit FNV1 hash:
#define MASK_56 (((u_int64_t)1<<56)1) /* i.e., (u_int64_t)0xffffffffffffff */ #define FNV1_64_INIT ((u_int64_t)14695981039346656037) u_int64_t hash; void *data; size_t data_len; hash = fnv_64_buf(data, data_len, FNV1_64_INIT); hash = (hash>>56) ^ (hash & MASK_56);The above process assumes that you are using an FNV hash that at most twice as large as the xbits that you need. For x < 16, there is no 16 bit (or less) FNV1 hash to use.
For tiny x < 16 bit values, we recommend using a 32 bit FNV1 hash as follows:
/* NOTE: for 0 < x < 16 ONLY!!! */ #define TINY_MASK(x) (((u_int32_t)1<<(x))1) #define FNV1_32_INIT ((u_int32_t)2166136261) u_int32_t hash; void *data; size_t data_len; hash = fnv_32_buf(data, data_len, FNV1_32_INIT); hash = (((hash>>x) ^ hash) & TINY_MASK(x));At the expense of CPU performance, one may use a larger FNV1 hash that is normally required in any of the above xorfolding examples. This will not produce the same standard output, but it may provide slightly better dispersion at the expense of more CPU time. All that is needed is to use a larger FNV1 hash and to move the mask outside of the expression on the final statement.
For example, to produce a 24 bit FNV1 hash could have used a 64 bit FNV1 hash, in a nonstandard way, as follows:
/* NOTE: nonstandard use of a larger hash */ #define MASK_24 (((u_int64_t)1<<24)1) /* i.e., (u_int64_t)0xffffff */ #define FNV1_64_INIT ((u_int64_t)14695981039346656037) u_int64_t hash; void *data; size_t data_len; hash = fnv_64_buf(data, data_len, FNV1_64_INIT); hash = (((hash>>24) ^ hash) & MASK_24);Replacing a 32 bit FNV1 hash with a 64 bit FNV1 hash during xorfolding might yield better dispersion at the expense of CPU time. However using an even larger FNV1 hash is almost certainly a waste of CPU time. If you are going to use this nonstandard xorfolding method, we recommend that you only do it for x < 32 bits, and only replace the 32 bit FNV1 hash with a 64 bit FNV1 hash.
NOTE: One may substitute the FNV1a hash for the FNV1 hash in any of the xorfolding examples. Some people believe that FNV1a xorfolding gives then slightly better dispersion without any impact on CPU performance. See the FNV1a hash description for more information.
If you really need an xbit hash for x > 1024 bits, send us Email.
The FNV hash is designed for hash sizes that are a power of 2. If you need a hash size that is not a power of two, then you have two choices. One method id called the lazy mod mapping method and the other is called the retry method. Both involve mapping a range that is a power of 2 onto an arbitrary range.
For example, to produce a value between 0 and 2142779559 using the lazy mod mapping method, we select a 32bit FNV hash because:
2^{32} > 2142779559
We compute the 32bit FNV hash value and then perform a final mod:
#define TRUE_HASH_SIZE ((u_int32_t)2142779560) /* range top plus 1 */ #define FNV1_32_INIT ((u_int32_t)2166136261) u_int32_t hash; void *data; size_t data_len; hash = fnv_32_buf(data, data_len, FNV1_32_INIT); hash %= TRUE_HASH_SIZE;
An advantage of the lazy mod mapping method is that it requires only 1 more operation: only an additional mod is performed at the end. The disadvantage of the lazy mod mapping method is that there is a bias against the larger values.
To understand this bias consider the a need to produce a value between 0 and 999999. We will compute a 32bit FNV hash value because:
2^{32} > 999999
We compute the 32bit FNV hash value using the and then perform the final mod:
#define TRUE_HASH_SIZE ((u_int32_t)1000000) /* range top plus 1 */ #define FNV1_32_INIT ((u_int32_t)2166136261) u_int32_t hash; void *data; size_t data_len; hash = fnv_32_buf(data, data_len, FNV1_32_INIT); hash %= TRUE_HASH_SIZE;
The bias introduced by the final mod is slight. The values 0 through 967295 will be created by 4295 different 32bit FNV hash values whereas the values 967296 through 999999 will be created by only 4294 different 32bit FNV hash values. In other words, the values 0 through 967295 will occur ~1.0002328 times as often as the values 967296 through 999999.
The bias can be larger when the range is nearly as large as the range of values produced by the FNV hash. Consider using the lazy mod mapping method to produce values between 0 and 9999999999999999999. We use a 64bit FNV hash because:
2^{64} > 9999999999999999999
We compute the 64bit FNV hash value using the and then perform the final mod:
#define TRUE_HASH_SIZE ((u_int64_t)10000000000000000000) /* range top plus 1 */ #define FNV1_64_INIT ((u_int64_t)14695981039346656037) u_int64_t hash; void *data; size_t data_len; hash = fnv_64_buf(data, data_len, FNV1_64_INIT); hash %= TRUE_HASH_SIZE;
Here the bias introduced by the final mod is more noticeable. The values 0 through 9999999999999999999 will be created by 2 different 64bit FNV hash values whereas the values 10000000000000000000 through 18446744073709551615 will be created by only 1 64bit FNV hash value.
NOTE: This bias issue may not be of concern to you, but we thought we should point out this issue just in case you care. Many applications should / will not care about this bias. Most applications can use the lazy mod mapping method without any problems. Your application, may vary however.
NOTE: One may substitute the FNV1a hash for the FNV1 hash in any of the lazy mod mapping method examples. Some people believe that FNV1a lazy mod mapping method gives then slightly better dispersion without any impact on CPU performance. See the FNV1a hash description for more information.
To produce a hash range between 0 and X use a nbit FNV hash where n is smallest FNV hash that will produce values larger than X without the need for xorfolding.
For example, to produce a value between 0 and 49999 using the retry method, we select a 32bit FNV hash because:
2^{32} > 49999
Before the final mod 50000 is performed, we check to see if the 32bit FNV hash value is one of the upper biased values. If it is, we perform additional loop cycles until is below the bias level. For example:
#define TRUE_HASH_SIZE ((u_int32_t)50000) /* range top plus 1 */ #define FNV_32_PRIME ((u_int32_t)16777619) #define FNV1_32_INIT ((u_int32_t)2166136261) #define MAX_32BIT ((u_int32_t)0xffffffff) /* largest 32 bit unsigned value */ #define RETRY_LEVEL ((MAX_32BIT / TRUE_HASH_SIZE) * TRUE_HASH_SIZE) u_int32_t hash; void *data; size_t data_len; hash = fnv_32_buf(data, data_len, FNV1_32_INIT); while (hash >= RETRY_LEVEL) { hash = (hash * FNV_32_PRIME) + FNV1_32_INIT; } hash %= TRUE_HASH_SIZE;
The disadvantage of the retry method is that it sometimes requires additional calculations. An advantage of the retry method it avoids slightly biased values.
For another example, we will produce a value between 0 and 999999999999 using the retry method, we select a 64bit FNV hash because:
2^{64} > 999999999999
Before the final mod 1000000000000 is performed, we check to see if the 64bit FNV hash value is one of the upper biased value. If it is, we perform additional loop cycles until it is not.
#define TRUE_HASH_SIZE ((u_int64_t)1000000000000) /* range top plus 1 */ #define FNV_64_PRIME ((u_int64_t)1099511628211) #define FNV1_64_INIT ((u_int64_t)14695981039346656037) #define MAX_64BIT ((u_int64_t)0xffffffffffffffff) /* largest 64 bit unsigned value */ #define RETRY_LEVEL ((MAX_64BIT / TRUE_HASH_SIZE) * TRUE_HASH_SIZE) u_int64_t hash; void *data; size_t data_len; hash = fnv_64_buf(data, data_len, FNV1_64_INIT); while (hash >= RETRY_LEVEL) { hash = (hash * FNV_64_PRIME) + FNV1_64_INIT; } hash %= TRUE_HASH_SIZE;
NOTE: One may substitute the FNV1a hash for the FNV1 hash in any of the retry method examples. Some people believe that FNV1a retry method gives then slightly better dispersion without any impact on CPU performance. See the FNV1a hash description for more information.
Pro: Yields the best results in the shortest amount of CPU time.
Con: Requires source code change to force hash range to be a power of 2 in size.
Pro: Yields the fastest results for a nonpower of 2 range.
Con: Produces a slight bias against larger hash values. However if one does not care about the slight bias, then there is no problem using this technique.
Pro: Produces nonbiased values for a nonpower of 2 range.
Con: Requires slightly more CPU time in some cases.
FNV reference source
In the C source< below, primes are provided for 32 bit and 64 bit unsigned integers. For compilers that do not implement the unsigned long long type, code is provided to quickly simulate the 64 bit multiply by the particular FNV_prime.
NOTE: As of version 5.0, the above source include test vectors for 32 bit and 64 bit versions of the FNV0, FNV1, and FNV1a algorithms. The test_fnv.c file contains validated test vectors. To verify a compiled code, try:
 fnv5.0.3.tar.gz  (all the bits) [updated: 2012 May 20]
 hash_32.c  (32 bit FNV1 algorithm)
 hash_64.c  (64 bit FNV1 algorithm)
 hash_32a.c  (32 bit FNV1a algorithm)
 hash_64a.c  (64 bit FNV1a algorithm)
 fnv.h  (FNV header file)
 fnv32.c  (32 bit FNV0, FNV1, and FNV1a hash tool/demo) [updated: 2012 May 20]
 fnv64.c  (64 bit FNV0, FNV1, and FNV1a hash tool/demo) updated: 2012 May 20]
 README  (brief comments about FNV0, FNV1, and FNV1a)
 Makefile  (how to compile/install)
 have_ulong64.c  (64 bit unsigned integer type detector)
 test_fnv.c  (FNV test vectors)
make checkFor compiled code, try:
 fnv032 t 1 v
 fnv132 t 1 v
 fnv1a32 t 1 v
 fnv064 t 1 v
 fnv164 t 1 v
 fnv1a64 t 1 v
(top) Other FNV source code
Andy Allinger sent us this 32 bit FNV1a subroutine written in FNV1 in FORTRAN.
Nicola Bonelli has an implementation of FNV using the iovec interface:
Nicola Bonelli also wrote the following C++ FNV implementation:
Georgi Marinov (Georgi 'Kaze' 'Sanmayce') posted his very fast FNV1a implementation:
 Best stringhashfunction or anopenletter to proprogrammer He offers this code as an C etude in spirit to our motto of:
Share and Enjoy! :)Wayne Diamond implemented 32bit FNV algorithm in PowerBASIC inline x86 assembly:
FUNCTION FNV32(BYVAL dwOffset AS DWORD, BYVAL dwLen AS DWORD, BYVAL offset_basis AS DWORD) AS DWORD #REGISTER NONE ! mov esi, dwOffset ;esi = ptr to buffer ! mov ecx, dwLen ;ecx = length of buffer (counter) ! mov eax, offset_basis ;set to 2166136261 for FNV1 ! mov edi, &h01000193 ;FNV_32_PRIME = 16777619 ! xor ebx, ebx ;ebx = 0 nextbyte: ! mul edi ;eax = eax * FNV_32_PRIME ! mov bl, [esi] ;bl = byte from esi ! xor eax, ebx ;al = al xor bl ! inc esi ;esi = esi + 1 (buffer pos) ! dec ecx ;ecx = ecx  1 (counter) ! jnz nextbyte ;if ecx is 0, jmp to NextByte ! mov FUNCTION, eax ;else, function = eax END FUNCTIONWayne said:
''Just thought I should let you know that I've ported the 32bit FNV algorithm over to inline assembly. It's actually in PowerBASIC (www.powerbasic.com) format  a compiler I use, but the main function is all assembly. It could be optimized further in terms of saving a couple of clock cycles, but it's fairly optimized al ready  only 6 instructions in the main loop, plus 5 setup instructions, and compiles to just 33 bytes.''M.S.Schulte sent us these 32bit FNV1 and FNV1a x86 assembler implementations (written in flat assembler), half of which were optimized for speed, the other half were optimized for size:
small_fnv32: ;FNV1 32bit (size: 31 bytes) ; Intel Core 2 Duo E6600: 354.20 mb/s push esi push edi mov esi, [esp + 0ch] ;buffer mov ecx, [esp + 10h] ;length mov eax, [esp + 14h] ;basis mov edi, 01000193h ;fnv_32_prime next: mul edi xor al, [esi] inc esi loop snext pop edi pop esi retn 0ch small_fnv32a: ;FNV1a 32bit (size: 31 bytes) ; Intel Core 2 Duo E6600: 327.68 mb/s push esi push edi mov esi, [esp + 0ch] ;buffer mov ecx, [esp + 10h] ;length mov eax, [esp + 14h] ;basis mov edi, 01000193h ;fnv_32_prime nexta: xor al, [esi] mul edi inc esi loop nexta pop edi pop esi retn 0ch fast_fnv32: ;FNV1 32bit (size: 36 bytes) ; Intel Core 2 Duo E6600: 565.12 mb/s push ebx push esi push edi mov esi, [esp + 10h] ;buffer mov ecx, [esp + 14h] ;length mov eax, [esp + 18h] ;basis mov edi, 01000193h ;fnv_32_prime xor ebx, ebx next: mul edi mov bl, [esi] xor eax, ebx inc esi dec ecx jnz next pop edi pop esi pop ebx retn 0ch fast_fnv32a: ;FNV1a 32bit (size: 36 bytes) ; Intel Core 2 Duo E6600: 574.95 mb/s push ebx push esi push edi mov esi, [esp + 10h] ;buffer mov ecx, [esp + 14h] ;length mov eax, [esp + 18h] ;basis mov edi, 01000193h ;fnv_32_prime xor ebx, ebx nexta: mov bl, [esi] xor eax, ebx mul edi inc esi dec ecx jnz nexta pop edi pop esi pop ebx retn 0ch
M.S.Schulte also sent us these 64bit FNV1 and FNV1a x86 assembler implementations:
;FNV64 x8664bit assembler implementation (written in flat assembler) ;FNV641 and FNV641a, both 37 bytes, (~284.13 mb/s Intel E8400) ;invoke fnv64,buffer,length,base (x64 Calling Convention) fnv64: mov rax, r8 mov r8, rdx mov r9, 100000001b3h ;fnv_64_prime xor r10, r10 next: mul r9 mov r10b, [rcx] xor rax, r10 inc rcx dec r8 jnz next ret fnv64a: mov rax, r8 mov r8, rdx mov r9, 100000001b3h ;fnv_64_prime xor r10, r10 nexta: mov r10b, [rcx] xor rax, r10 mul r9 inc rcx dec r8 jnz nexta ret
It has been reported by several people that under the gcc compiler with O3 on many AMD & Intel CPUs, that replacing the FNV_prime multiply with a expression of shifts and adds will improve the performance.Limited testing on our part confirmed that one can gain a few % in speed on an 1.6GHz AMD Athlon using gcc version 3.2.2 with O3 optimization.
For a 32 bit FNV1, we used:
while (bp < be) { /* multiply by the 32 bit FNV magic prime mod 2^32 */ #if defined(NO_FNV_GCC_OPTIMIZATION) hval *= FNV_32_PRIME; #else hval += (hval<<1) + (hval<<4) + (hval<<7) + (hval<<8) + (hval<<24); #endif /* xor the bottom with the current octet */ hval ^= (uint32_t)(*bp++); }For a 32 bit FNV1a, we used:
while (bp < be) { /* xor the bottom with the current octet */ hval ^= (uint32_t)(*bp++); /* multiply by the 32 bit FNV magic prime mod 2^32 */ #if defined(NO_FNV_GCC_OPTIMIZATION) hval *= FNV_32_PRIME; #else hval += (hval<<1) + (hval<<4) + (hval<<7) + (hval<<8) + (hval<<24); #endif }For a 64 bit FNV1, we used:
while (bp < be) { /* multiply by the 64 bit FNV magic prime mod 2^64 */ #if defined(NO_FNV_GCC_OPTIMIZATION) hval *= FNV_64_PRIME; #else hval += (hval << 1) + (hval << 4) + (hval << 5) + (hval << 7) + (hval << 8) + (hval << 40); #endif /* xor the bottom with the current octet */ hval ^= (uint64_t)(*bp++); }For a 64 bit FNV1a, we used:
while (bp < be) { /* xor the bottom with the current octet */ hval ^= (uint64_t)(*bp++); /* multiply by the 64 bit FNV magic prime mod 2^64 */ #if defined(NO_FNV_GCC_OPTIMIZATION) hval *= FNV_64_PRIME; #else hval += (hval << 1) + (hval << 4) + (hval << 5) + (hval << 7) + (hval << 8) + (hval << 40); #endif }
We are interested in finding the shortest data sets, under certain constraints, that produce a FNV hash value of zero for the various sizes of the FNV1 and FNV1a hash function. Those who offer the best solution will receive fame and credit on the FNV web page.Zerohash challenges:If you have a zerovalue hash solution to an unsolved challenge, or if you have a better (shorted data segment) solution than one that is shown below, please send Email to:
Please use the subject line:
zerohash challenge solutionNOTE: Please use the solution format used by Russ Cox (see below), if possible.
Please include the following information in your Email message:
 The challenge number you claim to have solved
 The name of the challenge you claim to have solved
 The length, in octets (8 bit bytes) of your proposed solution
 Who should we credit (i.e., how do you want us to credit you on our web page) for solving the challenge?
 A URL containing your proposed solution (optional)
NOTE: If your solution is large, please do not send the data set in the Email. Instead send is a URL where we can download your proposed challenge solution.
32bit solution by Russ Cox <> on 2011Mar02:There are 254 solutions of length 5, ranging from FNV32_1(01 47 6c 10 f3) = 0 to FNV32_1(fd 45 41 08 a0) = 0
Scott Pakin <> on 2011Aug22 reported that there are no solutions for binary data sets of length 7 or less.64bit solution by an anonymous scientist <> on 2011Oct23:
There are no solutions for length 8. These are the solutions for length 9: FNV64_1(92 06 77 4c e0 2f 89 2a d2) = 0 FNV64_1(fb 6c 4f db 00 41 db c0 fe) = 0 FNV64_1(9f 72 72 35 80 4b 8d 6b 06) = 0 FNV64_1(3d 82 76 00 80 7c 52 62 1a) = 0 FNV64_1(58 21 f5 a2 e1 01 9d 80 e0) = 0 FNV64_1(52 a1 eb 10 a0 e9 45 96 05) = 0 FNV64_1(be 64 8a 14 e1 46 17 18 ff) = 0 FNV64_1(9e 50 1d f2 41 75 55 ac 05) = 0 FNV64_1(b3 92 a9 6f 80 e4 29 a4 63) = 0 FNV64_1(82 ba b3 41 81 0f db 83 15) = 0 FNV64_1(92 f4 6e 0e e1 b9 e5 45 2d) = 0 FNV64_1(3c ea 57 50 81 67 67 9b e0) = 0 FNV64_1(36 e3 96 34 e2 1d 36 00 61) = 0 FNV64_1(af fa ff ee 61 b0 5e c4 04) = 0 FNV64_1(d5 c9 88 15 02 2f d3 38 c2) = 0 FNV64_1(bc a7 38 51 e2 2f b1 1b 22) = 0 FNV64_1(70 f2 10 ba 02 45 37 b3 e8) = 0 FNV64_1(5b a3 a0 4e 81 fc 4f 32 5b) = 0 FNV64_1(cd 50 99 68 22 d4 78 2f b0) = 0 FNV64_1(fa ff 0d fa e2 f0 43 b4 9a) = 0 FNV64_1(16 3f ba 47 43 94 44 fe 86) = 0 FNV64_1(46 e0 03 71 c2 57 f0 bc da) = 0 FNV64_1(60 74 4a 52 e3 06 42 36 f2) = 0 FNV64_1(97 20 3a f8 a2 f6 8a 62 a6) = 0 FNV64_1(98 f5 cc d5 03 32 22 1a e2) = 0 FNV64_1(5d d5 14 e8 e3 43 8b 5a 9e) = 0 FNV64_1(95 b8 11 62 03 5a ed d2 cb) = 0 FNV64_1(f9 cb 23 1d 03 71 c5 ca 5c) = 0 FNV64_1(c3 04 1c 59 82 a5 aa 9b 55) = 0 FNV64_1(68 10 80 61 a3 5e 72 31 48) = 0 FNV64_1(43 0a eb 89 c2 c1 9d d8 2a) = 0 FNV64_1(5a a3 e3 40 23 ce 90 bc a2) = 0 FNV64_1(27 e1 3f aa a3 8f af 6a 51) = 0 FNV64_1(0c 5b ac 36 24 22 a2 7c 24) = 0 FNV64_1(ea bc d7 7c 24 49 58 66 57) = 0 FNV64_1(5a 30 62 51 83 9c 97 c3 75) = 0 FNV64_1(7a 18 75 d3 c3 88 65 0b 3a) = 0 FNV64_1(02 38 25 95 25 0b 3b 0c a8) = 0 FNV64_1(33 1c ae dd 83 fc 55 f4 63) = 0 FNV64_1(cb 87 3d b9 e5 38 0b bd ca) = 0 FNV64_1(3a 25 ba 67 a4 c7 49 80 e9) = 0 FNV64_1(49 14 3b 94 05 63 b5 de d6) = 0 FNV64_1(45 fb 0d 28 45 19 66 63 27) = 0 FNV64_1(92 7a e5 a6 e5 88 ba 55 68) = 0 FNV64_1(c3 93 7c 11 c4 1a 2f e0 8b) = 0 FNV64_1(a1 d8 5e 71 a5 6a 96 5e 64) = 0 FNV64_1(77 7b d7 7d 05 dc 73 64 c3) = 0 FNV64_1(3d 3f d4 d6 a6 71 b2 9d 65) = 0 FNV64_1(8d 45 9e d0 27 66 b4 46 34) = 0 FNV64_1(f1 da 16 a1 85 fe 43 a7 30) = 0 FNV64_1(97 6b 02 e3 66 10 3d 6e ab) = 0 FNV64_1(84 2b d9 13 a7 25 5a 8a 22) = 0 FNV64_1(0c 2b 2f d2 28 3a 91 df 95) = 0 FNV64_1(1c 01 ed aa 47 2f 64 6a 8b) = 0 FNV64_1(71 66 6f 98 47 74 48 eb 39) = 0 FNV64_1(2b b3 61 de e8 6c 33 fd 32) = 0 FNV64_1(c5 33 7e c3 87 9c 0c 24 4b) = 0 FNV64_1(b7 44 ea 2c a8 59 bc fc c5) = 0 FNV64_1(b2 8c 40 98 67 46 6f ce 35) = 0 FNV64_1(04 34 61 b3 87 d4 e5 1a 7f) = 0 FNV64_1(20 ba 15 17 e8 dd d9 f6 19) = 0 FNV64_1(36 c4 d3 ef 88 53 6e 86 56) = 0 FNV64_1(32 55 ce f0 48 73 af 8d 9d) = 0 FNV64_1(18 3c d8 70 08 71 6a 47 a3) = 0 FNV64_1(a8 ad fb 29 a8 e4 8e 82 c4) = 0 FNV64_1(47 47 bf 58 08 7f ab bc 34) = 0 FNV64_1(8f 68 71 3a e9 56 8f d0 0f) = 0 FNV64_1(64 5e dc 14 88 93 8d b4 35) = 0 FNV64_1(b4 33 d0 6d 48 bb 3a 5d 3d) = 0 FNV64_1(22 e4 4d 0a 48 bd 95 1e 8e) = 0 FNV64_1(78 6e 06 7d 48 ce db 12 33) = 0 FNV64_1(7e 1f 4d 02 48 f8 d2 a5 c2) = 0 FNV64_1(90 6b 26 4e c7 ef 12 f2 20) = 0 FNV64_1(90 10 a8 21 09 16 22 57 bc) = 0 FNV64_1(5b 1a 8c bc 09 2c a4 2d 9c) = 0 FNV64_1(2c 1a 6e 44 a9 7d 98 e0 39) = 0 FNV64_1(8a 2b 35 ab 49 97 d5 f7 bc) = 0 FNV64_1(29 bc 62 5e 0a 4e 9e 34 40) = 0 FNV64_1(e7 e6 c7 00 aa d3 26 5a 4a) = 0 FNV64_1(7e 65 e5 51 2b 66 e8 b5 b2) = 0 FNV64_1(2b d7 cf 6a 6a 6f b4 56 c9) = 0 FNV64_1(33 51 09 af ab 42 80 8b 07) = 0 FNV64_1(d1 78 30 6b c9 9c af 1f d4) = 0 FNV64_1(c6 00 f9 bf 4b 38 f0 00 c6) = 0 FNV64_1(a1 81 99 9a c9 f2 8e 4c 6f) = 0 FNV64_1(b3 d1 6c 57 2c 62 3c b0 5c) = 0 FNV64_1(c7 50 c1 4d ec de 91 e8 fd) = 0 FNV64_1(54 51 fe aa ec e9 6b f2 a2) = 0 FNV64_1(5d dc 27 f3 4b c8 b0 9a c9) = 0 FNV64_1(d2 4d e1 77 8c 0a 8f 2d 44) = 0 FNV64_1(ce e4 e5 80 ca 8a 07 dc 67) = 0 FNV64_1(0f d0 8f 67 ca 9f 94 a5 86) = 0 FNV64_1(89 e9 ed dd ed 84 84 50 26) = 0 FNV64_1(76 f5 be 03 ac 82 5a 09 26) = 0 FNV64_1(f8 71 02 ca 6c 6d a5 ae fc) = 0 FNV64_1(e8 cb 80 56 ad 00 a0 d1 d2) = 0 FNV64_1(88 89 0c dd 0c cf b2 5d d7) = 0 FNV64_1(69 ad 8f db 0d 03 8a ca 37) = 0 FNV64_1(96 58 24 93 cb bf d7 f1 fe) = 0 FNV64_1(ee b1 f6 d2 6d 9b 46 7d 3f) = 0 FNV64_1(de 64 18 d6 2e 86 5b 3c 0c) = 0 FNV64_1(24 05 66 e4 0d f1 c8 b1 d3) = 0 FNV64_1(77 d7 5f 5f ef 81 2d b3 37) = 0 FNV64_1(58 53 f5 b5 2e ec 51 fe 25) = 0 FNV64_1(ba 65 2a 3b 8e c6 bb a8 b6) = 0 FNV64_1(e5 81 4f 09 f0 0c ec f9 fa) = 0 FNV64_1(50 5b e8 f9 f0 6a 47 b4 64) = 0 FNV64_1(d3 0e f4 c7 6e d9 60 31 b5) = 0 FNV64_1(58 e4 4a 3c cd 97 d6 fd 84) = 0 FNV64_1(6f 82 aa ca 2f e7 1a 8d b1) = 0 FNV64_1(8f 50 ec 2f 2f e7 30 4c db) = 0 FNV64_1(f0 3b 01 db 6f 33 db 82 41) = 0 FNV64_1(13 3c 71 e4 8f 75 46 48 8f) = 0 FNV64_1(2f a5 a5 41 cd f5 b4 c6 45) = 0 FNV64_1(8b 1a 4c 12 30 38 c3 61 08) = 0 FNV64_1(6f 9c 5c 3f 8f d6 47 70 f7) = 0 FNV64_1(c1 0e 16 18 50 1b 47 48 f8) = 0 FNV64_1(2b 94 3f ad 30 ad 5e c4 85) = 0 FNV64_1(5f 55 92 c6 ce b9 f5 05 08) = 0 FNV64_1(42 8e 3a bb f1 bd 08 09 25) = 0 FNV64_1(28 84 f5 2b ce f1 3e 47 41) = 0 FNV64_1(25 d1 2c bf 90 5c 71 24 85) = 0 FNV64_1(d0 25 3d f3 90 64 67 ae f9) = 0 FNV64_1(c5 1d e5 36 11 a9 7b 4d e0) = 0 FNV64_1(88 c2 24 da 50 f9 55 03 dc) = 0 FNV64_1(ff 54 4f 75 cf 6d bb c4 4b) = 0 FNV64_1(9e 49 c2 63 11 d7 b0 74 25) = 0 FNV64_1(ac b1 42 65 cf 7d 84 0e 37) = 0 FNV64_1(05 a5 28 18 11 e3 0d 6a aa) = 0 FNV64_1(03 8d 11 ce f2 6f 0e 0a cf) = 0 FNV64_1(bf d6 88 3d 51 75 18 67 0e) = 0 FNV64_1(69 a2 dd 69 cf e4 94 5e e3) = 0 FNV64_1(e4 62 0b 95 b1 58 a1 d4 25) = 0 FNV64_1(c0 75 c6 ec 51 9e d4 c7 4c) = 0 FNV64_1(83 9d b3 97 32 54 9b 04 ec) = 0 FNV64_1(9a 7f 71 94 32 cf bb 97 38) = 0 FNV64_1(7a 4f e4 60 13 93 fd 7d 50) = 0 FNV64_1(76 48 71 f5 52 2f cb f7 e2) = 0 FNV64_1(da 0e 88 1f 13 ba d5 a7 2f) = 0 FNV64_1(2a be ca e7 33 12 4e 33 26) = 0 FNV64_1(79 ce 5e ee 92 27 5d c7 17) = 0 FNV64_1(36 91 77 d3 72 5a de 9f 0b) = 0 FNV64_1(3a 33 cd 8d 52 7a b8 2a d8) = 0 FNV64_1(25 66 ec c3 52 8b d0 13 4f) = 0 FNV64_1(de d7 a1 1f b2 58 65 d8 d7) = 0 FNV64_1(8a e5 cb 54 33 b0 de 92 42) = 0 FNV64_1(71 49 0a bb 33 d8 35 b3 59) = 0 FNV64_1(03 36 3b 64 f4 98 4b 21 99) = 0 FNV64_1(8c f5 50 02 d2 10 db 86 1d) = 0 FNV64_1(c3 4f cf 6e 93 4e b5 d8 b4) = 0 FNV64_1(2a fb 95 75 73 8c 85 76 82) = 0 FNV64_1(35 c0 2a 8b f5 56 45 66 45) = 0 FNV64_1(68 2a 76 44 73 cf 31 3a 8e) = 0 FNV64_1(98 4c a0 05 93 9a cf 65 a1) = 0 FNV64_1(a5 3e 3b f8 94 0e 6e 74 73) = 0 FNV64_1(4b 75 16 e9 35 47 e2 af 21) = 0 FNV64_1(3c 84 fb ee f6 10 6c 09 3f) = 0 FNV64_1(45 52 87 53 74 7c 1b 2c a1) = 0 FNV64_1(a0 8b 28 e0 d3 34 be 90 cb) = 0 FNV64_1(67 57 50 d0 16 3c 23 af e1) = 0 FNV64_1(a8 a6 4d 44 16 52 57 ba 95) = 0 FNV64_1(9e 0c be 6a 75 1d 3f 6c 20) = 0 FNV64_1(14 1b 43 7a b5 4e 40 88 b0) = 0 FNV64_1(68 3b bd d6 f7 ae d7 f9 28) = 0 FNV64_1(ab c0 61 a3 76 20 b8 f7 3b) = 0 FNV64_1(05 e8 00 91 b5 dd be 7e af) = 0 FNV64_1(14 dd 60 a4 96 19 04 05 16) = 0 FNV64_1(7e e5 14 cd 76 87 03 4c 2d) = 0 FNV64_1(07 f0 09 29 18 7d 7d fe 8a) = 0 FNV64_1(b9 b4 a5 c6 37 99 fd 49 ff) = 0 FNV64_1(d2 dd 5a 63 37 e4 08 8e d4) = 0 FNV64_1(a2 0b f2 5e 76 fd 65 2c 80) = 0 FNV64_1(c8 d7 df ba 37 e8 d9 2b 0c) = 0 FNV64_1(6e 40 03 eb 37 ea eb a6 93) = 0 FNV64_1(27 f9 53 0f 37 fc 0e 28 60) = 0 FNV64_1(c2 72 49 23 d5 ce 7e bb ef) = 0 FNV64_1(3e 11 d8 6b b6 e9 30 2f ab) = 0 FNV64_1(0e dd b7 d7 19 45 86 d7 79) = 0 FNV64_1(a3 f7 21 85 97 07 7d e1 4b) = 0 FNV64_1(4e 76 21 ee 19 67 54 55 23) = 0 FNV64_1(0f 19 18 da 38 60 1c 0b 9c) = 0 FNV64_1(a4 91 5d 2c 77 7f b4 cb c6) = 0 FNV64_1(c1 b7 ee 41 19 7a 60 4d 7e) = 0 FNV64_1(88 47 7b 0c d6 4c e0 c1 20) = 0 FNV64_1(73 88 eb 4f d6 53 4f 7c 6a) = 0 FNV64_1(f4 5a e5 b3 f9 cf 96 88 8f) = 0 FNV64_1(ba 5c b1 28 58 2f 33 16 cc) = 0 FNV64_1(04 cd 1f c8 1a 7a 20 f1 d0) = 0 FNV64_1(5f 2c 1c 63 b8 48 83 82 a4) = 0 FNV64_1(22 f5 ed a6 98 51 eb a3 f8) = 0 FNV64_1(f8 6b 6d 33 fa 65 24 bd 5c) = 0 FNV64_1(10 3b b6 ae d7 86 73 25 d3) = 0 FNV64_1(52 31 6c 5a 79 03 be 55 95) = 0 FNV64_1(af c9 ab 5e 1b 54 de 1d 84) = 0 FNV64_1(c2 ed f4 36 79 77 81 0d ee) = 0 FNV64_1(36 f5 db eb d8 30 d9 69 f6) = 0 FNV64_1(43 84 92 b9 79 90 66 a4 e6) = 0 FNV64_1(7d e9 4d 0e 1b da 69 eb 57) = 0 FNV64_1(2d 03 20 62 fb 3b 6e 88 65) = 0 FNV64_1(e5 69 ec d2 79 be d8 aa 8e) = 0 FNV64_1(ac 26 0a dd fb 68 43 1f 6d) = 0 FNV64_1(3c 96 c1 be 3a be 22 ae 76) = 0 FNV64_1(de 73 09 f1 1c 39 67 8a 0c) = 0 FNV64_1(56 2e 5f 2c 3a fd 30 40 7d) = 0 FNV64_1(68 57 ce 1c 59 e0 e0 eb 04) = 0 FNV64_1(df f7 e6 75 1c 66 88 86 90) = 0 FNV64_1(fd af f5 8b 5a 06 ae 0b 40) = 0 FNV64_1(4e cf a7 e9 1c 93 af 36 a8) = 0 FNV64_1(56 dc 13 cf fc 12 88 bb b8) = 0 FNV64_1(1f 5f c2 b2 3b 75 fb 7c 92) = 0 FNV64_1(4e 9c bb ba 5a 74 e3 a4 e1) = 0 FNV64_1(0b a0 c8 c5 1d 99 06 87 5e) = 0 FNV64_1(ff ef b0 25 1d f4 9d df db) = 0 FNV64_1(09 67 cb 8f 7c 13 3c 75 97) = 0 FNV64_1(05 bf fe 4d fd d2 6e 61 64) = 0 FNV64_1(a4 d7 4b 6d 3d 2a bb ee 4c) = 0 FNV64_1(b9 8c 01 cb 5b f2 50 15 f0) = 0 FNV64_1(31 45 17 91 1e a3 7f 25 52) = 0 FNV64_1(10 6c 0c 98 db 0f 9b 1e 88) = 0 FNV64_1(06 ec cc b6 9b da a2 3a 16) = 0 FNV64_1(23 66 38 19 7c ac 80 d3 78) = 0 FNV64_1(b8 f3 d7 98 bc 11 60 0f bf) = 0 FNV64_1(27 24 2d a8 db c2 99 28 65) = 0 FNV64_1(64 61 39 c2 bc 79 b5 b1 a6) = 0 FNV64_1(df ff 2a 12 5c fb 42 6d 01) = 0 FNV64_1(af 1d ea 4e ff 0d 46 95 5e) = 0 FNV64_1(2a b0 c6 54 9c e9 98 43 e1) = 0 FNV64_1(7c e5 9e 74 7d c8 44 ef 9e) = 0 FNV64_1(56 14 d1 31 dc ce 77 17 c3) = 0 FNV64_1(ed 6b 65 68 3f 05 36 41 9b) = 0 FNV64_1(2f d2 24 7e dd 19 4f 91 72) = 0 FNV64_1(c8 96 f0 54 9d 92 5b cc b1) = 0 FNV64_1(47 5d 76 63 be 17 24 ad d4) = 0 FNV64_1(4f 88 0b 03 9e 4a 48 ee 14) = 0 FNV64_1(26 ec 1b 56 5e b8 5d 5e 39) = 0 FNV64_1(c3 a8 2d 1a 5e fc b7 81 49) = 0 FNV64_1(14 3a 3b 0b be e7 b2 4d 75) = 0 FNV64_1(27 a0 f4 22 df b5 b6 5e 4a) = 0
Richard Heylen <> found a 128bit FNV1 solution on 2011Dec01:NOTE: It is not known if the above solution is the shortest 128bit FNV1 solution.The following is a solution of length 17: FNV128_1(20 28 4e 43 40 55 6f 99 25 1b 89 f4 a8 18 ec 76 c0) = 0Can you find a shorter solution or prove that the shortest solutions are of length 17?
Richard Heylen <> found a 256bit FNV1 solution on 2011Dec17:NOTE: It is not known if the above solution is the shortest 256bit FNV1 solution.The following is a solution of length 37: FNV256_1(04 03 F4 7D 37 15 6D DB 3B 06 68 6F 07 0E 0E 3B 67 6E 43 53 0B
5F 5A 08 93 09 16 29 47 D9 4C 1B BD 7E 04 17 38) = 0Richard Heylen speculates that the shortest solution might be 32 or 33 in length.
Can you find a shorter solution or prove that the shortest solutions are of length 37?
32bit solution by Russ Cox <> on 2011Mar02:The solutions of length 4 are: FNV32_1a(cc 24 31 c4) = 0 FNV32_1a(e0 4d 9f cb) = 0
Scott Pakin <> on 2011Aug22 reported that there are no solutions for binary data sets of length 7 or smaller.64bit solution by an anonymous scientist <> on 2011Oct23:
The only solution for length 8 is: FNV64_1a(d5 6b b9 53 42 87 08 36) = 0
NOTE: By binary data set we mean any arbitrary collection of bits that is a multiple of 8 bits (1 octet) in length.
NOTE: Russ Cox's solution below is for the set of 6 challenges immediately above
General FNV solution by Russ Cox <> on 2011Mar02:There is no such stream of NUL octets. Xor with an odd byte flips the parity of the hash. Xor with an even byte leaves it alone, as does multiplying by any of the (odd) FNV primes. Thus the final hash has the same parity as the initial offset if and only if there are an even number of odd bytes in the input. This is the reason that all the offset bases have the same parity (odd, it turns out), and it implies that any consecutive stream of NULs will have an odd (nonzero) hash.
NOTE: Russ Cox's solution below is for the set of 6 challenges immediately above
General FNV solution by Russ Cox <> on 2011Mar02:There is no such stream of NUL octets. Xor with an odd byte flips the parity of the hash. Xor with an even byte leaves it alone, as does multiplying by any of the (odd) FNV primes. Thus the final hash has the same parity as the initial offset if and only if there are an even number of odd bytes in the input. This is the reason that all the offset bases have the same parity (odd, it turns out), and it implies that any consecutive stream of NULs will have an odd (nonzero) hash.
NOTE: By set of consecutive NUL octets we mean consecutive octets of 0 value.
32bit solution by Russ Cox <> on 2011Mar02:428876705 0xff octets.
Peter de Rivaz <> independently confirmed this result.
Richard Heylen <> independently confirmed this result.
64bit solution by Peter de Rivaz <> on 2011Dec13:9896220416391497057 0xff octets.
Richard Heylen <> independently confirmed this result.
128bit solution by Richard Heylen <> on 2011Dec14:152812075112152085146780705563019820097 0xff octets.
Peter de Rivaz <> independently confirmed this result.
256bit solution by Richard Heylen <> on 2011Dec14:971310111339922874984865931636119693708047768520568964839262806324177446
08641 0xff octets.
Peter de Rivaz <> independently confirmed this result.
512bit solution by Richard Heylen <> on 2011Dec14:612806956068056576215461080927099484400241024395026354420378459322301684
399722907408508285157251830003265846176457230616192353760639874361657361
1559921729 0xff octets.
Peter de Rivaz <> independently confirmed this result.
Richard Heylen <> on 2011Dec14 found a 1024bit solution, one that may not be the shortest:416676424643376760772449487657397580462250574503060952762179226758571093
761689059455392577969506880247688215845019822014535567311051405867916840
497646798425786609620276239990874926250263846724497488057368971095038212
934393820920453733216924021449681744199270750560657371464991242494173425
0024772314731200245 0xff octets.
Peter de Rivaz <> independently confirmed this partial solution.
NOTE: Russ Cox <> also observed that as a consequence of his solution to the consecutive NUL octet challenge, any consecutive stream of 0xff with a zero FNV1 or FNV1a hash of any size must be of odd length.
32bit solution by Russ Cox <> on 2011Mar02:3039744951 0xff octets.
Peter de Rivaz <> independently confirmed this result.
Richard Heylen <> independently confirmed this result.
Peter de Rivaz <> on 2011Dec13 found a 64bit solution that may not be the shortest:5125902172520635575 0xff octets.
Richard Heylen <> independently confirmed this partial solution.
Peter de Rivaz <> on 2012Mar22 found a 128bit solution that may not be the shortest:195988526173479582814801599910495893127 0xff octets.
Richard Heylen <> independently confirmed this partial solution.
Peter de Rivaz <> on 2012Mar22 found a 256bit solution that may not be the shortest:121365261308607922778298441917362349745681574069429011964286973126957522
07543 0xff octets.
Richard Heylen <> independently confirmed this partial solution.
Peter de Rivaz <> on 2012Mar22 found a 512bit solution that may not be the shortest:445359075217293949446034810045247904893303946817563293272717969680141569
129699002471949546033702514868111823565737421304575683326671821385410536
5691076111 0xff octets.
Richard Heylen <> independently confirmed this partial solution.
Peter de Rivaz <> on 2012Mar22 found a 1024bit solution that may not be the shortest:712131032390661212423469446429778580303529367161714287727915539272088837
388997682828851224650621762650604398414532544740385461220466517818153731
651665570936392160298954932547331005615954561744064764751259871084045735
302812555692177957250787849447135140298017119914349292668850620197682629
52245579219890855775 0xff octets.
Richard Heylen <> independently confirmed this partial solution.
NOTE: Russ Cox <> observed that as a consequence of his solution to the consecutive NUL octet challenge, any consecutive stream of 0xff with a zero FNV1 or FNV1a hash of any size must be of odd length.
NOTE: By set of consecutive 0xff octets we mean consecutive octets of 0xff value.
32bit solution by Russ Cox <> on 2011Mar02:The solutions of length 5 are: FNV32_1(07 65 76 4a 3b) = 0 \a e v J ; FNV32_1(27 0f 56 47 0a) = 0 ' ^O V G \n FNV32_1(30 17 22 62 62) = 0 0 ^W " b b FNV32_1(30 33 53 42 5b) = 0 0 3 S B [ FNV32_1(54 20 75 7b 5b) = 0 T space u { [ FNV32_1(62 61 2c 31 71) = 0 b a , 1 q
64bit solution by Peter de Rivaz <> on 2011Mar11:Rudi Cilibrasi <>, on 2014Dec26, verified the above 64bit solution and found 43 more of the same length:The shortest solution is of length 10: FNV64_1(10 17 34 7c 28 61 38 72 64 4d) = 0 ^P ^H 4 ! ( a 8 r d M There are no solutions shorter than length 10.FNV64_1(0d 20 3f 5c 4f 7e 5e 18 56 64 ) = 0 FNV64_1(11 79 03 18 05 4e 13 3d 6d 74 ) = 0 FNV64_1(12 31 5a 0c 01 04 39 09 30 01 ) = 0 FNV64_1(15 5b 15 18 37 74 55 47 64 6f ) = 0 FNV64_1(21 47 5b 64 66 75 01 59 61 7a ) = 0 FNV64_1(29 28 57 2f 5b 0c 36 70 43 12 ) = 0 FNV64_1(29 78 6c 48 2e 3e 24 7b 10 25 ) = 0 FNV64_1(33 14 71 7d 24 03 6a 67 5c 20 ) = 0 FNV64_1(34 45 09 75 1d 05 6a 78 14 46 ) = 0 FNV64_1(35 46 77 16 38 13 2a 2e 21 4b ) = 0 FNV64_1(36 24 60 55 52 06 7b 60 6a 65 ) = 0 FNV64_1(39 41 05 59 56 32 5c 64 0d 72 ) = 0 FNV64_1(3d 23 1d 04 12 1e 70 38 66 78 ) = 0 FNV64_1(40 61 13 53 2a 14 45 2b 40 68 ) = 0 FNV64_1(44 08 7c 16 2e 1b 65 0d 1e 0a ) = 0 FNV64_1(4c 50 01 3f 50 4f 62 4d 59 5a ) = 0 FNV64_1(61 73 26 4a 71 39 06 47 29 5d ) = 0 FNV64_1(6a 6a 02 16 37 5f 28 53 72 46 ) = 0 FNV64_1(72 31 6f 68 3c 6f 39 0d 66 18 ) = 0 FNV64_1(72 3a 40 76 02 58 35 24 19 29 ) = 0 FNV64_1(01 44 42 05 34 6a 2f 29 31 10 ) = 0 FNV64_1(01 5e 68 02 53 4a 76 3d 1e 78 ) = 0 FNV64_1(04 66 63 3c 0c 4b 70 73 15 09 ) = 0 FNV64_1(0f 45 7c 0b 30 05 18 69 5d 55 ) = 0 FNV64_1(11 15 3d 2e 4c 25 59 30 7f 49 ) = 0 FNV64_1(12 1f 1a 1b 26 02 4a 16 0e 4b ) = 0 FNV64_1(12 2a 1c 09 73 52 7d 08 0c 20 ) = 0 FNV64_1(1c 47 57 23 14 1e 59 74 7a 3f ) = 0 FNV64_1(20 65 5b 68 4a 25 09 34 6c 21 ) = 0 FNV64_1(21 76 29 45 59 77 59 56 6b 26 ) = 0 FNV64_1(25 1d 3f 20 69 20 58 6e 6f 62 ) = 0 FNV64_1(31 30 02 56 05 58 0d 3e 6a 62 ) = 0 FNV64_1(33 69 2a 25 2f 34 06 2f 04 3a ) = 0 FNV64_1(34 1d 36 4e 2f 71 70 50 30 24 ) = 0 FNV64_1(39 04 2d 0f 12 65 01 26 2b 79 ) = 0 FNV64_1(4d 16 6a 48 6c 5e 7e 58 0a 30 ) = 0 FNV64_1(60 09 50 68 4b 21 4f 5b 1f 73 ) = 0 FNV64_1(65 32 24 01 20 44 2a 53 03 7d ) = 0 FNV64_1(65 7e 7c 15 40 13 64 2b 6e 43 ) = 0 FNV64_1(67 51 4f 1d 5c 18 47 03 3f 0a ) = 0 FNV64_1(71 1f 70 0b 78 25 43 0d 08 5b ) = 0 FNV64_1(7a 5f 63 61 14 38 16 10 09 01 ) = 0 FNV64_1(7f 4f 19 62 60 61 6e 16 4b 02 ) = 0
32bit solution by Russ Cox <> on 2011Mar02:The solutions of length 5 are: FNV32_1a(12 3b 5b 23 20) = 0 ^R ; [ # space FNV32_1a(2b 21 3d 79 47) = 0 + ! = y G FNV32_1a(2f 06 3c 37 71) = 0 / ^F < 7 q FNV32_1a(36 38 6d 2a 20) = 0 6 8 m * space FNV32_1a(40 24 1b 38 42) = 0 @ $ Esc 8 B FNV32_1a(4c 39 59 56 11) = 0 L 9 Y V ^Q FNV32_1a(59 08 26 60 62) = 0 Y \b & ` b FNV32_1a(60 4a 63 6f 11) = 0 ` J c o ^Q FNV32_1a(65 53 4e 2e 31) = 0 e S N . 1
64bit solutions by Rudi Cilibrasi <> on 2014Dec26 believes there are no other solutions of the same or shorter length:FNV64_1a(07 1e 62 37 2c 02 40 42 14 69 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(0a 4d 3e 21 16 68 02 0e 0c 6d ) = 0 FNV64_1a(0a 59 59 0e 24 44 2a 7b 60 70 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(0f 73 15 07 1b 6f 38 4b 17 39 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(10 28 59 4f 6d 07 0f 45 3f 2e ) = 0 FNV64_1a(16 43 29 25 71 1b 5c 65 7a 03 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(1c 7f 21 5c 2d 09 1a 03 7f 69 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(21 30 49 43 3d 56 6c 6f 61 59 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(26 04 5d 12 7c 7d 66 61 0c 26 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(3d 2e 20 68 78 22 69 58 3c 3b ) = 0 FNV64_1a(3d 66 7f 2f 6e 36 53 40 30 5d ) = 0 FNV64_1a(42 21 21 7b 16 0e 2f 65 67 25 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(46 2e 24 74 64 6f 3c 01 07 24 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(51 76 58 74 4d 3e 40 46 70 25 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(54 14 18 68 68 4b 14 3c 0a 72 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(58 59 54 4d 5c 4d 45 46 0d 7c ) = 0 FNV64_1a(5f 22 6b 57 6b 3d 2d 76 24 63 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(60 22 10 0e 59 21 65 39 7a 69 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(65 05 78 75 4f 47 3a 15 6a 23 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(65 79 15 0c 1d 73 32 40 5a 26 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(67 2c 21 55 66 46 29 7b 68 04 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(01 1c 4f 49 78 7e 12 6e 6d 61 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(05 46 2b 0d 6f 5f 67 1d 63 49 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(09 1c 11 5b 68 01 09 23 37 48 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(09 5c 02 44 11 06 58 5d 27 3f ) = 0 FNV64_1a(13 67 10 1b 08 30 2a 55 71 2a ) = 0 FNV64_1a(20 0e 75 1d 51 65 72 0a 62 0b ) = 0 FNV64_1a(21 41 46 17 02 63 03 5b 5b 76 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(22 42 59 2e 18 0a 14 6f 57 72 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(2d 64 37 3d 74 48 18 3e 38 4e ) = 0 FNV64_1a(30 5e 64 66 59 24 65 64 5f 06 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(31 51 18 5b 43 5f 3a 6b 60 49 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(36 48 0e 56 31 6f 17 59 38 0d ) = 0 FNV64_1a(3d 03 4f 76 44 69 7b 5b 3d 04 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(4d 1a 06 77 15 33 08 4d 01 21 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(56 1b 0d 31 28 39 04 09 35 63 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(56 35 71 38 31 4a 13 14 74 53 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(5f 01 62 60 20 4f 4a 62 5c 42 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(65 68 4f 66 68 21 3b 07 06 02 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(69 59 67 0c 2a 65 07 0d 46 0d ) = 0 FNV64_1a(69 5c 69 45 1a 78 3f 7b 49 21 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(6c 03 4c 6c 0f 05 4a 4e 7c 1c ) = 0 FNV64_1a(6c 38 33 4a 46 30 40 15 60 63 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(6c 55 0c 32 30 01 28 2f 2d 25 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(6e 09 5a 3a 1d 2b 63 77 16 44 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(6e 70 20 3e 33 19 4a 0f 07 77 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(7a 47 54 16 6e 75 42 78 2f 48 ) = 0 FNV64_1a(7b 3e 68 34 5f 71 43 2a 13 12 ) = 0
NOTE: By nonNUL ASCII string we mean any arbitrary collection of nonNUL ASCII 8bit characters in the range: [0x01  0x7f]. Obviously the Cstyle terminating NUL octet is not included.
32bit hash solution by Russ Cox <> on 2011Mar02:The solutions of length 5 are: FNV32_1(30 33 53 42 5b) = 0 0 3 S B [ FNV32_1(54 20 75 7b 5b) = 0 T Space u { [ FNV32_1(62 61 2c 31 71) = 0 b a , 1 q
64bit solution by Rudi Cilibrasi <> on 2014Dec26 believes there are no other solutions of the same or shorter length:FNV64_1(21 76 29 45 59 77 59 56 6b 26) = 0 !v)EYwYVk&
32bit hash solution by Russ Cox <> on 2011Mar02:The solutions of length 5 are: FNV32_1a(2b 21 3d 79 47) = 0 + ! = y G FNV32_1a(36 38 6d 2a 20) = 0 6 8 m * Space FNV32_1a(65 53 4e 2e 31) = 0 e S N . 1
64bit solutions by Rudi Cilibrasi <> on 2014Dec26 believes there are no other solutions of the same or shorter length:FNV64_1a(21 30 49 43 3d 56 6c 6f 61 59) = 0 !0IC=VloaY FNV64_1a(3d 2e 20 68 78 22 69 58 3c 3b) = 0 =. hx"iX<; FNV64_1a(51 76 58 74 4d 3e 40 46 70 25) = 0 QvXtM%gt;@Fp% FNV64_1a(5f 22 6b 57 6b 3d 2d 76 24 63) = 0 _"kWk=v$c
NOTE: By printable ASCII string we mean any arbitrary collection of printable ASCII 8bit characters in the range: [0x20  0x7e]. Obviously the Cstyle terminating NUL octet is not included.
32bit hash solution by Russ Cox <> on 2011Mar02:The solutions of length 6 are: FNV32_1(33 64 37 41 35 4b) = 0 3 d 7 A 5 K FNV32_1(39 71 36 4d 71 33) = 0 9 q 6 M q 3 FNV32_1(48 48 59 53 4c 45) = 0 H H Y S L E FNV32_1(54 72 4c 64 5a 31) = 0 T r L d Z 1 FNV32_1(56 4c 33 42 71 43) = 0 V L 3 B q C FNV32_1(57 41 64 32 60 57) = 0 W A d 2 ` W FNV32_1(59 55 6f 31 39 6c) = 0 Y U o 1 9 l FNV32_1(59 66 36 68 50 36) = 0 Y f 6 h P 6 FNV32_1(68 49 72 6a 46 6a) = 0 h I r j F j FNV32_1(6e 60 62 76 33 52) = 0 n ` b v 3 R FNV32_1(70 6c 49 7a 6c 60) = 0 p l I z l ` FNV32_1(75 4d 6b 60 39 51) = 0 u M k ` 9 Q FNV32_1(79 73 6f 70 48 6c) = 0 y s o p H l FNV32_1(7a 63 49 6b 43 65) = 0 z c I k C e
64bit solutions by Rudi Cilibrasi <> on 2014Dec26 believes there are no other solutions of the same or shorter length:FNV64_1(4d 74 35 4b 65 78 6e 79 33 31 6e) = 0 Mt5Kexny31n FNV64_1(4f 6a 53 48 6a 69 6b 50 4e 59 56) = 0 OjSHjikPNYV FNV64_1(59 49 41 39 59 57 4d 4f 41 52 58) = 0 YIA9YWMOARX
32bit hash solution by Russ Cox <> on 2011Mar02:The solutions of length 6 are: FNV32_1a(33 70 6a 4e 71 4d) = 0 3 p j N q M FNV32_1a(35 52 30 4c 67 37) = 0 5 R 0 L g 7 FNV32_1a(37 6f 45 34 38 36) = 0 7 o E 4 8 6 FNV32_1a(42 52 34 32 71 66) = 0 B R 4 2 q f FNV32_1a(46 6f 75 42 53 72) = 0 F o u B S r FNV32_1a(47 6b 6b 7a 46 44) = 0 G k k z F D FNV32_1a(48 56 47 5a 71 39) = 0 H V G Z q 9 FNV32_1a(49 77 50 53 64 54) = 0 I w P S d T FNV32_1a(60 6e 72 59 33 47) = 0 ` n r Y 3 G FNV32_1a(71 7a 73 30 55 44) = 0 q z s 0 U D FNV32_1a(73 58 62 73 73 72) = 0 s X b s s r FNV32_1a(75 68 34 74 53 49) = 0 u h 4 t S I
64bit solution by Rudi Cilibrasi <> on 2014Dec26 believes there are no other solutions of the same or shorter length:FNV64_1a(37 37 6b 65 70 51 46 51 38 4b 6c) = 0 77kepQFQ8Kl
NOTE: By alphanumeric ASCII string we mean any arbitrary collection of alphanumeric ASCII 8bit characters in the range: [0x30  0x39, 0x41  0x5a, 0x60  0x7a] Obviously the Cstyle terminating NUL octet is not included.